I’m a proud and punctilious pollinator gardener. Even so, sometimes gardening goals are thwarted by circumstances well beyond pollinators’ needs and gardeners’ plans.
For years, I’ve grown passion vine in my garden. Early on, I grew a Purple passion flower, Passiflora incarnata, that my mother gave me. The original vine happily draped itself along a wooden fence, regularly attempting to clamber over perennial shrubs standing in its way. Over time and with increasing shade, the passion vine declined, but to this day and in their best imitation of unwanted weeds, strands of the plant continue to pop up underneath the shade of the large oak tree . The Gulf Fritillary butterflies, Agraulis vanillae and I know that these are not obnoxious weeds, but that the vine serves as a nursery and food source for the juvenile stages of the butterflies.
Some years ago, I planted another variety of passion vine, the Blue passion flower, Passiflora caerulea. It grew along a trellis which separates the back garden from the compost bin and garden work space. I enjoyed observing the blooms when they happened, but even more, I was entertained by the ebb and flow of a vine full of foliage, which hosted busy, hungry caterpillars who gobbled the vine to its skeleton state. I knew that the vine nurtured the development of a new generation of Gulf Fritillary butterflies and that knowledge more than compensated for the stripped, and let’s be honest here–temporarily unattractive–vine.
P. caerulea is evergreen during our milder winters, but dies to its roots when temperatures dip below 25°F for extended periods. The vine didn’t return after a couple of very hard freezes during the winter of 2016.
I purchased a new P. caerulea two years ago and planted in a different spot so my garden would continue to host Gulf Fritillary butterflies. Last year was the vine’s first year of growth and didn’t see many fritillaries around. I wasn’t particularly fussed about the lack of flying orange beauties because each year is different: some years there are scads of a particular insect, other years that insect might be scarce, but something else is plentiful. So nature goes.
Recently, this well-worn Gulf Fritillary flitted around the passion vine over the course of a couple of days.
She stopped at various points along the vine, curling her abdomen to oviposit, doing her bit to continue the species.
Do you see her lovely golden egg on the left side, toward the bottom left of the right side leaf?
I’ve seen a few caterpillars on the vine, good sized ones at that, but not many, and certainly not in numbers representative of the adult fritillary action around the vine.
Additionally, while there’s some foliage damage, there aren’t the number of munched leaves I would expect with a healthy crew of baby fritillaries feeding on the foliage.
So, what gives?
For a while, I was concerned that maybe I’d purchased a plant treated with the neonicotinoids. Neonicotinoids are pesticides toxic to insects and used in the agriculture industry to control insects considered pests. The neonicotinoid downside for pollinators is that butterfly and moth host plants with insecticide-fused foliage and flowers kill the insects reliant upon those host plants. Caterpillars (larvae) eat the foliage, ingest the poisons, and before the caterpillars morph to their adult stage, they die. The peril for pollinators becomes obvious when a landscape plant, promoted and sold to support the life cycle of a pollinator (egg, caterpillar, adult), carries an insecticide and delivers that insecticide to larvae. The larvae will never morph to adult pollinators.
I purchased the passion vine at a nursery whose products I trust and I recall asking whether the plant was grown with neonics; the answer was a firm ‘no’. As an aside, when I’ve purchased milkweed plants for monarchs, I always look for aphids on the leaves–and buy the plants with aphids. Aphids are fond of milkweed and while rendering the plant somewhat unattractive, their presence indicates a pesticide-free plant. Neonicotinoids are especially effective pesticides against aphids, so aphids serve as a good canary in the coal mine indicator of whether there is a deadly insecticide in the plant. When I see a milkweed plant with perfect foliage–no aphid in sight–I’m suspicious about the possibility of a neonicotinoid tainted milkweed and I don’t purchase it for my garden. Until fairly recently, the nursery trade used neonics in growing some plants, but with evidence of how the damaging the pesticides are to pollinators, many growers have ceased, or soon will, using these chemicals.
Even if–and it’s a big if–the passion vine I purchased was originally grown with neonics, the chemicals are probably depleted by now, or in such small quantities, that there is no real impact on the larval stage of fritillaries.
As I’ve observed the eggs laid by the adult fritillaries, I’ve also kept an eye on the rogue Purple passion vine “weeds” in my back garden. Interestingly, I haven’t seen any eggs or larvae on those passion vine bits either.
The plot thickens.
What also thickens is the caterpillar goo that I’ve seen on a couple of occasions on the passion vine. This glop of slime is all that remains of a good sized Gulf fritillary caterpillar. Clearly, this larva will never be an adult butterfly.
I haven’t found any fritillary chrysalises this summer, though they’re very good at camouflage and I’m not necessarily a keen cocoon sleuth.
Why am I observing so few late stage (larger) caterpillars and why are the fritillary larvae not evolving to chrysalis stage? Is there something–parasite or disease–preventing the full life cycle of the Gulf Fritillary butterflies in my garden? I’ve noticed lots of wasp activity, especially around the passion vine, and there are other insects which also parasitize and kill caterpillars, as well as a variety of viral diseases which kill butterfly larvae. Could it be that the early stages of caterpillar development are thwarted and others are nipped in later stages?
The truth is that I don’t know why there are adult Gulf Fritillaries in my garden, seemingly healthy and regularly laying eggs, but with few caterpillars developing, and so far, no observable chrysalises. In reading about Gulf Fritillary butterflies, I haven’t found anything similar to what I’m witnessing this summer with my vine and its butterfly buddies. The adult fritillaries I’ve seen are hatching and maturing somewhere, and then flitting to my garden. The cycle appears to glitch once they’re here.
In life–and in the garden–answers are not always clear and solutions sometime elusive. I’ll continue observing the Gulf Fritillary activity as time trundles on. I hope that I’m able to witness the Gulf Fritillaries return to their full cycle of life: mated adults, laid eggs, offspring nurtured and matured with consumed foliage, and a new generation of valuable pollinators in place.
For more information about neonicotinoids, check out these links:
Buying Bee-Friendly Plants: Neonicotinoid-Free Nurseries, Growers, and Seed Sources
Neonicotinoids and Bees, Xerces Society
EPA Cancels Registrations for 12 Neonicotinoid Pesticides, The Scientist
Do you have unsolved critter mysteries in your garden? Please share your wildlife happenings and remember to leave a link when you post here and happy wildlife gardening!
That is a mystery. I had lots of butterflies in the Spring, but almost none now. Hummingbirds and bees are plentiful and I have so many blooming plants, that the hummers won’t use the feeders.
There are a fair number of butterflies, lots of bees (yay!), few hummers, which is odd for this time of year. Glad you have so many though and they’re probably much happier with the flowers over the feeder.
hello Tina, that is a mystery, I hope things improve for the Gulf Fritillary caterpillars soon,
I have just posted my wildlife Wednesday contribution for this month,
thanks for hosting, Frances
You know, Frances, it might work out; I plan to keep a watch and see what happens as our temperatures mellow out–assuming that ever happens!
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What a shame. Are there places you could send a sample of the dead caterpillar for analysis? I am guessing that you have already asked on various forums or butterfly sites. I hope that you get to the bottom of the situation quickly.
My wildlife post is here: https://wp.me/pM8Y1-7uC
I could send a leaf sample to one of the universities nearby (Texas A&M)–they’re well-known for their horticultural work. I haven’t really found any satisfactory answers with a couple of FB forums I’m on, but I’m going to keep reading and see where that gets me. Worse-case scenario is that I have to pull the vine out, but I don’t expect that to happen. Truthfully, I’m thinking the problem is predator related, but I’m not yet sold on that, either.
I’m often surprised at the sheer numbers of Gulf Fritillary butterflies in my garden considering the few host plants available. In the past few years I’ve relocated several Passiflora from the wild to my garden with some success. Here in SA a local nursery discovered last spring that a supplier had grown milkweed with neonics despite assurances to the contrary. While the nursery replaced the plants, the loss of monarchs was significant.
I had a Toadly fun adventure for September:
Yes, even when everyone’s best interests are at heart, it’s all about what the grower has done and the retail nurseries and gardeners are at their mercy. That’s a sad story.
That is a mystery. I was worried about an ebb in the presence of monarchs (adults and caterpillars) in my garden earlier in the summer. I think it was a natural break between generations, but it might have been drift from neighbors who fog their yards for mosquitoes and other insects. 😦
Ugh, I hate those blankety-blank mosquito foggers! Fortunately, I’ve not had any of that near my house, but they are around.
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It’s possible that the cats are being targeted by parasitic wasps. This happens to certain fritillary (and other) species here in the UK. This turns out to by cyclic, eventually the wasp population will crash and the frits recover. Just a thought if neonics are not present.
Wasps are at the top of my list of culprits and I imagine you’re correct, it just happens to be a bummer time for the butterflies, a boon for the wasps.
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You’ve made an apt transition from “canary in the coal mine” to “aphids in the axils.”
Haha–that’s great, wish I’d thought of it!
I like your Passionflower Vine. Hope your Fritillaries are able to be fruitful and multiply.
Thanks, Jason–me too!
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I’ve never been one to seek out horror movies, but I went on a little search and turned up this page about Black Death in caterpillars. When I finished reading that, I looked at the list of topics on the right side of the page and read the topic “Braconid Wasps Are Parasitoids of Butterfly and Moth Caterpillars.” By the time I finished that, I wasn’t sure I wanted to go outdoors, or go to sleep, for that matter. Good grief.
But, it all made me suspect you’ve got a parasite lurking around, wreaking havoc with your caterpillars. Farmers may be happy to have those wasps show up, since they take out the tomato hornworms, but your fritillaries shouldn’t suffer such a fate!
Look at the topic “NPV – Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus – too. It includes this paragraph:
“NPV is all over in nature. In areas where winter is hard and long, NPV is seen less often. Some areas have NPV issues every fall. Gardeners and butterfly enthusiasts who live where winters are short or non-existent are often dismayed and heart-broken to see dead black caterpillars hanging all over their passion vine. Gulf Fritillary caterpillars are found dying from NPV in these areas in the late fall. Quite often dozens can be found dying on the same passion vine.
Thanks for the tip. I don’t think it’s viral, but probably related to the wasps, though I’m not positive. My guess is that at some point, there will be a shift–the wasps will have done their damage, suffer a decline of population, and the fritillaries will rebound. At least, that’s what I’m telling myself.
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My reply may be a year late but if interested I would like to share a video of a paper wasp and a Gulf Fritillary caterpillar. For the past couple of years, I have brought must of the newly hatched caterpillars and eggs indoors to save them from predators. Over time I learned what size the caterpillar needed to be in order not to be of any interest to the paper wasps. At least I thought I had learned. As the video shows, even a very large caterpillar just a day or two from forming its chrysalis still was not safe from the paper wasp. The last group of caterpillars was not returned outside till they were in their chrysalis.